Listing of file='MANUAL.TXT;02' on disk='vmedia/printer_pkg-sector.ccvf'
PRINTER PACKAGE INSTRUCTION MANUAL This package provides two programs which can be configured by the user for his particular printer. Almost any type of printer can be accomodated. Configuration is accomplished via a simple question/answer process using programs provided with the package, and may be done each time a file is printed, or the configured print program may be saved for later use. There is sufficient space remaining on the distribution disk to save configured versions of both programs. DO NOT SAVE CONFIGURED PROGRAMS ON OTHER DISKS - THEY WILL NOT RUN. The programs are not intended for use in word processing applications, but rather for program maintenance. Listings can be produced which have page headings with the file name, time and date, and page number. Features such as replacement of control characters are designed to provide an accurate copy of the file for documentation purposes. They can also be used simply to review a file, because output is sent to the screen as well as the printer, even if the printer is off. The assembly language print programs provided are: PRINT.PRG - Prints source files (ASCII text files) LISTER.PRG - Prints BASIC files. These are in addition to two BASIC files with the same names which are used for configuration. A MENU program allows easy loading, and the user need only hit <AUTO> to run a program. The final program, TIME.BAS, is intended for setting the time and date for use in listing headers. For your convenience, a copy of this manual is distributed on the disk with the programs. It may be used to testing the programs, or simply deleted if not needed. In particular, you may wish to reclaim the space to save additional configured copies of the programs. NOTE: As distrubuted, the programs are set up for a Paper Tiger (IDS 440) using 8-1/2 by 11 inch fan-fold paper, 80 columns by 60 lines (10 cpi and 6 lpi) running at 1200 baud with the Auto-perforation skip enabled and Auto-line-feed disabled. INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE There are two ways to customise the programs for a given printer. The first simply involves a question and answer pro- cess, and is the simplest. It produces a PRG file that can be run from FCS, and for which the user selects the name ( .PRG need not be specified in the file name, since it is assumed). As an alternative, there are default values in the BASIC programs which drive the assembly language routines. These programs, named LISTER.BAS and PRINT.BAS, contain REMarks to help in setting the default parameters. The default parameter is used if <RETURN> is hit in response to a configuration question. With appropriate defaults, it is possible to run the programs simply by repeatedly hitting <RETURN> during the question/answer part of the following: A. First time use, or for Configuration 1. Insert the Printer disk in drive 0 and hit <AUTO>. 2. Set the time and date if you have not previously done so. 3. Select either Lister or Print. 4. The appropriate BASIC program will be loaded, and will display its name. 5. Answer the configuration questions. 6. Save this configuration if you anticipate using it a lot. Most people only use one configuration. NOTE: Do not save the programs on other disks. 7. The assembly language program will now take over, print its ID message, and prompt for a file name. 8. If necessary, insert the required disk in drive 0. You may, of course, use drive 1. 9. Enter the file name (default file type may be left off). 10. The program will start printing. (See notes under Characteristics of the Programs on how to abort the program, or suspend printing.) *** IMPORTANT *** NEVER REMOVE THE PRINTER DISK UNTIL AFTER THE PROGRAM PROMPTS FOR A FILENAME B. Using a configured program 1. Get into BASIC (<ESC> W or <ESC> E) and LOAD "TIME". 2. RUN this program to set the time and date. 3. Get into FCS (<ESC> D) and RUN the configured copy of the program that you want. Note: You choose the file name for the configured copy, so it may be anything you want. In both cases, once the time and date are set, there is no need to do this again so long as the machine remains on. The only exception is at midnight, because the date will not be incremented. CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS The following parameters are specified by the user: * Baud Rate * Line Length * Page Length * Whether the printer can do Form-Feeds * Whether the printer skips page perforations and if not, the number of lines to skip * Type of forms used (single sheet or continuous) * Whether a Header is to be printed on each page * The default file type * Mechanical Delay Factor BAUD RATE All standard Compucolor baud rates are supported, however, it is essential that the printer handshake modification be installed if the printer cannot keep pace at the desired baud rate. The modification is as follows: 1. Tie Pin 9 of J2 edge connector to UD1 Pin 4 2. Tie UD1 Pin 6 to UC1 Pin 3 3. Tie UC1 Pin 4 to UE1 Pin 10 4. Add a 10K 1/4W resistor between UD1 Pin 4 and +12V (R10 and R11 on logic board go to +12) Pin 9 on J2 must be connected to the handshake line on the printer. Refer to the printer Owner's Manual to determine which pin on the DB-25 (25-pin) RS-232C connector to use. This modification assumes that the printer pulls this line low when it cannot receive characters. If the printer does the reverse, i.e. raises this line, then omit steps 2 and 3, and tie UD1 pin 6 directly to UE1 pin 10. NOTE: This modification works well on Centronics, Heath H14 and Paper Tiger (IDS) printers, but not so well on the BASE2 and MPI printers. The latter printers do not pull down the handshake line properly, resulting in intermittent problems. To try to overcome this problem, time delays are inserted in the programs whenever a mechanical motion occurs. See the description of Mechanical Delay Factor. LINE LENGTH Line length is the number of characters printed across the page. Some printers, e.g. H14, will start a new line if the print head reaches the right margin. In this case, it will be necessary to specify a line length one less than the actual width of the paper. Most printers print 80 character lines at 10 cpi (characters per inch), so if the printer starts a new line automatically at column 80, the line length must be set to 79. PAGE LENGTH The page length is the number of lines actually printed on a page - not the number of physical lines on a page. For example, a normal 8-1/2 by 11 inch page has 66 lines at 6 lpi (lines per inch). However, only 60 of these are used, the other 6 being top and bottom margins (3 lines each). NOTE: For the programs to work correctly, printers which have an automatic line-feed on receipt of a carriage return must have this feature disabled. FORM FEEDS If the printer cannot do form feeds i.e. feed the paper to the top of a new page, this option will simulate a form feed by issuing line feeds. For ASCII files, form-feeds may be inserted anywhere in the file to cause a page eject. If the printer cannot form-feed, it is assumed that it does not skip page perforations either, and so the number of lines for the perforation skip must be specified, as in the next paragraph. PERFORATION SKIP Some printers can be set to automatically skip the page perforations when continuous (fan-feed) forms are used. This requires special treatment by the programs, and so it is a parameter. If the printer cannot skip, it can be simulated by line feeds. The number of lines to skip must be specified, and the sum of this number plus the page length given above must be the physical page length. In the previous example, 60 would be given as the page length and 6 as the perforation skip. SINGLE SHEETS When single pages are to be printed i.e. fan-fold paper is not used, this option can be selected. At the end of each page, a form-feed is issued to eject the page and the program will halt until the user hits <RETURN>. This allows a new sheet of paper to be inserted in the printer and aligned. In this case, only half the usual page perforation skip length should be specified, since it includes the top margin on the next page as well as the bottom margin on the current page. HEADER GENERATION At the user's option, a header may be printed at the top of each page consisting of: VOLUME>FILE TIME DATE PAGE XXX <--------------- Line Length ---------------> where VOLUME = Disk name FILE = File name (full name including version number) TIME = Time at beginning of printing DATE = Current date XXX = Page number Headers can be suppressed if not desired, for example, for printing correspondence. Note that this also eliminates page numbering. Header information is very useful in program main- tenance for keeping listings up to date. (A program is supplied which can be used to set the time and date. The real-time clock in the Compucolor will then keep the correct time, however, it will not increment the date.) DEFAULT FILE TYPE This simplifies the entry of file names if a certain type of file is printed frequently. Of course, it does not apply to BASIC files, which must have a type of BAS. MECHANICAL DELAY FACTOR Because mechanical motions (carriage return, line feed and form feed) take much longer than printing characters, a time delay occurs after each of these operations. The user adjusts the delay to suit his particular printer using this option. When the delay is set at its minimum value (1), it is barely noticeable, but at its maximum (12), it is almost sufficient to allow the average printer to run without handshaking. Note however, that this is not a complete replacement for hardware handshaking. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROGRAMS The programs have a number of features designed to make them as generally applicable and easy to use as possible: * Tab expansion * Line continuation * Control character replacement * Escape sequences for invalid ASCII codes * DELETE substitution * Program Abort * Printout suspension Note that the programs assume that the printer is capable of printing the full ASCII character set, upper and lower case. Also, they assume that the paper begins at top of form. They always end by issuing a form-feed to make sure that the paper is at top of form for the next run. TAB EXPANSION Tabs are automatically expanded into the correct number of spaces to be consistent with the Compucolor so that ASCII files will appear the same on the screen as on the printer. LINE CONTINUATION Lines which are too long to fit on the page are split. Not all printers do this automatically, e.g. teletypes. In the case of BASIC files, keywords are never split across lines. Similarly, escape sequences and control character sequences are not split up either (see below). Continuation lines in BASIC files are indented so that they leave the line number area empty. This makes the listing easier to read. CONTROL CHARACTER REPLACEMENT Because certain printers, e.g. Paper Tiger, respond to control characters, they are replaced by a sequence ^X, where X is the key to depress in conjunction with the <CONTROL> key to generate the character. This notation is designed to simplify entering programs via the keyboard from listings. The only exceptions are tab, line-feed, carriage return, and form-feed. Control character replacement may be a dis- advantage in some circumstances where it is desired to use control characters to change printer characteristics. However the programs are not intended for this type of use. ESCAPE SEQUENCES FOR INVALID CODES Standard ASCII is a 7-bit code, so characters with the MSB (Most Significant Bit) set are considered illegal. Instead of totally ignoring them, an escape sequence is issued as [X], where X is the character with the MSB turned off. If the res- ulting character is a control character, it is printed as per the previous paragraph. This includes line-feed, tab, etc. In general, a character with the MSB set is a PLOT character, so it is not likely that replacing it will cause any problems. DELETE SUBSTITUTION The ASCII code for DEL (delete character) is substituted with a pound sign (#) rather than sent to the printer. This is included specifically for the Texas Instruments TI-810 because DEL causes it to clear its input buffer, resulting in the loss of data. PROGRAM ABORT The programs may be aborted at any time by hitting <ESC> or line-feed (down-arrow). Occasionally, e.g. during disk accesses, it may be necessary to hit the key twice in order to terminate a run. A form-feed is issued before the program exits. PRINTOUT SUSPENSION If printing is to be suspended for any reason, the <BREAK> key can be used. Pressing any other key after <BREAK> causes printing to resume, except, of course, <ESC> and line-feed. A <BREAK> has no effect while the disk drive is in motion. This facility provides an easy means of skimming through a file. With the printer turned off, the programs simply display the file on the screen, and it is possible to page through the file using <BREAK> and <RETURN>. Note: Some printers pull the handshake line down when the power is off and interfere with the normal operation of the Compucolor. Either disconnect the printer when not in use, or leave it turned on but deselect it (turn it off-line).